Dir abstrakte Grafik zum ADABOX-Tool PRA für Penalty-Reward-Treiberanalysen zeigt ein dreidimensionales Balkendiagramm mit roten und grünen Ergebnis-Balken.




PRA (Penalty & Reward Analysis) is our tool for the analysis of non-linear influences on target values such as satisfaction, loyalty and image. It delivers a classification of the drivers and the extent of their influence. Now in unexpected, new speed dimensions!


  • Eliminates restrictions imposed by linear models
  • Classification by “Delighter”, “Basic” and “Performance” drivers (based on Kano)
  • Uncovers influence factors where a need for action exists or which open up new opportunities
  • General avoidance of problems arising from multicollinearity due to the calculation of Shapley Values
  • Now new speed dimensions even with a great many drivers: our PRA tool allows computing times of minutes and hours instead of months or even years through clever fragmentation into several smaller PRAs


The objective of Penalty & Reward Analysis is to answer the question, how is one feature influenced by one or more other features? The relationship between features is not always linear, as is assumed in many other procedures (e.g. regression analysis, structural equation modeling).

According to the Kano Model three types of drivers can be distinguished

  • Basics:
    There are expectations regarding a minimal standard. If these expectations are not fulfilled it leads to dissatisfaction. But if fulfilled it does not lead to satisfaction.
  • Delighters:
    Regarding this driver there are no expectations. If it performs, nevertheless, satisfaction is achieved. But if it does not perform there are no consequences.
  • One-dimensional:Both satisfaction and dissatisfaction can occur according to the degree to performance.
Types of Drivers according to Kano

For each driver, the procedure determines how far poor ratings for this driver exclusively correspond to poor ratings for the dependent variable, i.e. a driver is penalized. Since the “penalty” can thus be unambiguously traced back to one driver, multicollinearity does not represent a problem. It is also tested how far good ratings for a certain driver exclusively correspond to good ratings for the dependent variable, i.e. a driver is “rewarded”.

The relationship arising from the amount of Penalty and Reward is decisive for determining the type of the driver. When Penalty is dominant it is a Basic Driver, when Reward is dominant it is a Delighter. When Penalty and Reward are roughly equal, it is a One-dimensional driver (illustration 2). From the relation of the sum of Penalty and Reward of a driver to the total of the sums of all drivers, the importance of the driver can also be derived.

Categorization of Drivers


The relationships between the independent variables and the dependent variable must be positive. Otherwise recoding is necessary.

The procedure divides the sample into three groups, “high”, “middle” and “low”, according to the levels of the dependent variable. The “high” and “low” groups must not be empty.

Unimaginable speed dimensions

With our PRA-Tool, new, unimaginable speed dimensions become real. The PRA is based on the very time-consuming calculation of Shapley Values. For this reason, their applicability had been limited to analyzes with up to 30 drivers. Even a few more drivers led to an increase in computing time by months or years. IfaD ​​has developed a procedure and integrated it in the ADABOX, which also allows analyzes with significantly more drivers in a short time. So far, you’ve had to put days or months of computing time into the equation, so with the toolbox’s PRA analysis, you can now achieve nearly the same results in just a few minutes or hours.